Since the very beginning of the founding of new China, the Chinese government, in pursuing its fundamental aim of serving the people wholeheartedly, has always been making the promotion of honest and accountable administration. The first supervisory organisation, the People’s Supervisory Commission was established as early as in October 1949 under the state Government Administration Council. This was replaced by the Ministry of Supervision in 1954. In 1959, the Ministry was abolished due to restructuring of the state administration system. To establish and improve the national supervisory organs and give full play to their role, in 1987, the Ministry was re-established. The Ministry of Supervision, under the leadership of the Premier, is the nation’s supreme administrative supervisory body. Its main functions are to supervise the government organs and their personnel, according to the laws, regulations and policies, and to see that they perform their official duties honestly, accountably and industriously. The Ministry and other supervisory bodies at various levels exercise their functions independently, and are not subjected to any interference from other administrative organs, public organisations or individuals. The Minister of Supervision is a member of the State Council. He is nominated by the Premier and appointed by the State President with the approval of the National People’s Congress. The ministry’s nature, its system of leadership, scope of jurisdiction, duties and responsibilities as well as limits of power and institutional set-ups have been specified in the “Regulations for Administrative Supervision in the People’s Republic of China” promulgated by the State Council.
The Ministry of Supervision is empowered by law to inspect, investigate, recommend and to impose administrative penalties directly.
The specific functions of the Ministry are, to supervise and inspect the implementation, by those to be supervised, of state policies, laws, decrees, national economic and social development plans as well as the decisions and orders promulgated by State Council; to investigate and handle cases of violation of state laws, decrees, and breach of administrative disciplines and meet out disciplinary punishments, to study and examine the policies or regulations made by all the departments under the State Council and the local governments and put forward recommendations for revision or amendments accordingly.
Ministry of Supervision comprises 23 offices and departments with a 1000 odd staff. Ministry has set up 50 branch offices in other ministries and commissions under the State Council. Special supervisory organs in governments from the provincial down to the county level have been established. Ministry has specially invited a certain number of scholars, experts, Socialist Party members and personages of non-party affiliation to be part-time supervisors.